Best Lawyers, Best Writers

storyThe best lawyers are the best writers. Such lawyers command the technical and professional skills required of all legal writers, while also deploying the sometimes subtle tools of narrative nonfiction and novel writers. Those writer’s tools include a sense of character, conflict and story arch that drive all moving stories. The tools also involve story structure, plot development, and scene setting, among others. Yet those tools are rarely taught in law school legal writing courses. Law & Literature seeks to highlight the usefulness and enjoyment of storytelling for legal writers, without sacrificing the professional, ethical and technical sophistication required of the best legal writing.  Let us all strive to become better “legal storytellers.”


Writing the Abundant Heart: Theme in Law-Lit

imgresWhat do you care about when you’re immersed in reading a good story?

Better, as a writer, what do you want readers to care about in your own writing?

Better still, when our readers set down our writing, what lasting values and emotions – what enduring feelings – do we hope to inspire in them?

Answer these questions – no easy task – and we just might find some understanding of theme in our writing. That notoriously obscure but most vital of story ingredients – theme. It is the organizing principle, the emotional core, the value-laden heart of our writing and reading.

This is equally true of persuasive writing in legal advocacy: theme both drives and organizes our reader’s emotional engagement. If well crafted, our theme works beneath the surface, unspoken and implicit, where its persuasive appeal nudges or taps our unconscious, the place from which we decide most matters in our lives.

But theme doesn’t tell us how to live well or relate to others or make the right decisions. It shows us the way. It shows us what’s relevant to our lives. It shows us what the story means. It is inherent, generative, and implicit.

So, the first rule of theme is not to talk about theme in your writing – at least not explicitly in your writing. A surefire way to kill a theme is to call it out directly in your writing.

The second rule of theme is let theme emerge, at least in part, organically from your writing. In other words, extract theme as you write. Don’t bring theme to your writing. No agendas, please.

Still, you may want a few techniques if you’re not so comfortable with the organic emergence of theme, or if want to start with theme in mind to usher your writing. If so, then writing coach Jack Hart offers the following advice in Storycraft: The Complete Guide to Writing Narrative Nonfiction:

  1. Give your writing a title at the very start to orient you to its essence, to drive your narrative or argument. The title should aim for the emotional center and value conflict inherent in your vision of the piece. This may seem tepid advice, or even ill-suited at the outset of any project, but effective theme-driven titles can serve as the most useful early organizing principle for your writing. They demand an overarching sense of your intentions as a writer, along with your best wishes for your reader’s interpretation. Keep in mind that your title/theme may change as your writing ensues. Be willing to change, again keeping in mind that your creativity and thinking will surely evolve through the act of writing.
  2. Come up with a theme statement, 1-2 sentences that capture the core emotional meaning and value at stake in your writing. One thought experiment that might help you with this: imagine sitting around the kitchen table with close family or friends enjoying coffee during an honest, open talk. They ask you what you’re writing is really about, what matters most in what you’re working on. Now give your answer in less than 10 seconds. Work to crystallize this answer into a universal value statement true to both the particulars of your writing and the nature of the world in which we live. A tall order, I know. But this is what makes themes so compelling – their jointly universal and personal appeal.
  3. Similar to this last technique, but more focused still, find the one sentence that expresses your writing’s “irreducible meaning,” in a phrase made popular by screen writing coach Robert McKee. In searching for this irreducible meaning, you should concentrate on finding the right verb, preferably a transitive one, that takes a direct object. This shows causality. And causality is crucial to theme because it shows your reader how the world works and what they can do to influence it. For instance, “Actions speak louder than words” shows the potency of the one-sentence theme reduction with a crisp, simple verb.
  4. Lajos Egri promotes a structural approach to theme, advising us to devise a theme with 3 story ingredients in mind – (1) character, (2) conflict, and (3) narrative arch. Thus, the theme “frugality leads to waste” (1) implies a frugal character, (2) suggests conflict through the verb phrase “leads to”, and (3) reveals a likely ending with “waste”.
  5. Collaborate with someone on theme by asking another what you’re writing is all about, whether it’s your editor or your friend or your imaginary ideal reader.

Whether we write with theme in mind at the outset, or allow theme to grow more organically out of our writing, or a little of both, these 5 techniques offer us choices as writers who care about our readers, who care about the quality of our own prose, and who seek to move others through the written word.

Law-Lit: Telling Better “Legal Stories”

images-2A winning legal argument works much like a compelling story. So much so, in fact, that we might say their overlapping functions follow their shared forms. These underlying forms are by no means equivalent, but their matching anatomy reveals how both good stories and good lawyers win us over.

Let’s take story first. What makes a riveting story? At least five essentials:

  1. Setting: selected details to create a story world that invokes our senses and suspends our disbelief
  2. Character: people who engender our empathy, who want or need, who struggle, and who change through conflict
  3. Structure: conflict-driven and causally connected events that culminate in success or failure for the characters
  4. Theme: a moral premise or underlying message about how we should live our lives
  5. Style: the artist’s stamp of skill, creativity, and expertise that lends to the story’s believability

Now compare the essentials of legal argument, broadly speaking. What ingredients yield the most persuasive legal positions?images-1

  1. Details: selected facts to invoke our senses relevant to the legal dispute, or what we call “legally relevant facts”
  2. Motives: parties in the legal dispute must engender our empathy – we must understand their needs, wants, and goals
  3. Coherence: conflict-driven legal reasoning (i.e., legal argument) coupled with story to create “narrative-driven argument”
  4. Theme: a moral premise or underlying message about how we should live our lives
  5. Credibility: the lawyer’s believability, stemming from skill, practical wisdom, knowledge, and expertise

As we see, these two structures track one another in meaningful ways:

  • Details – Setting: we select the right details to invoke the senses and create a believable, engaging world
  • Motive – Character: we engender empathy for the struggling people at the center of this conflicted world
  • Coherence – Structure: the conflict resolves through striving, confrontation, and change
  • Theme – Theme: moral underpinning that gives larger meaning and connection to us
  • Credibility – Style: skill, expertise, and credibility show in the work, the work of a professional who cares

imagesNot a perfect overlap, by any means, but surely one worthy of our further study and reflection. The key differences, too, deserve our attention. This is yet another law-lit mission for us – to improve our understanding and practice of both law and literature by exploring their fundamental forms. These forms might help us tell better “legal stories” to serve our clients and the legal system, never failing our overarching duty to truthfulness and justice.

Law-Lit’s Mission: Imagination, Emotion, Story


  1. We revive our moral imaginations and intellectual empathy to compliment legal reason as a path to solving law’s problems.
  2. We engage our emotional and intuitive faculties as foundations for sound judgments in law.
  3. We discover storytelling, along with fiction and nonfiction techniques, as routes to understanding law and better writing in the legal profession.
  4. We aim to become more adept with stories, reading, and writing to enhance communication and persuasion.
  5. We seek to ethically attune ourselves to the rewards and challenges of a fulfilling career – if not a calling – in the law.

Why Law and Literature?

Simply put, law and literature helps law students and lawyers achieve the following laudable goals:

  1. To become better at persuading – especially writing. The best writer often prevails in our legal system.
  2. To make sure our persuasion satisfies high ethical standards. Never sacrifice your ethics to win.
  3. To give us a vocabulary to explain our dissatisfaction with much legal analysis. Law’s conceptual tools alone do not explain justice and injustice. We need more.
  4. To look outside the strictly legal domain for perspective on law – we can’t solve a problem from within that problem.
  5. To allow a more nuanced, sophisticated appreciation of ambiguity in law. Ambiguity about factual matters, about indeterminacy in legal decisions, and about what constrains our courts in interpreting and applying law.

These are just a few of law-lit’s contributions to the intellectual and moral lives of all those who care about law and justice.

Write with Style

Scholar Helen Sword studied as many writing guides as she could lay her eyes on. She saw six points of unanimous advice:

1. Clarity, Coherence, Concision: write sentences that are clear, coherent, and concise.

2. Short or Mixed-Length Sentences: write short sentences or vary sentence rhythm with alternating short and long sentences.

3. Plain English: avoid ornate, pompous, Latinate, and waffly prose.

4. Precision: avoid vagueness and imprecision.

5. Active verbs: active verbs should dominate your writing; use passive verb constructions sparingly.

6. Tell a story: create a compelling narrative.

On drafting sentences, in particular, she offers three guiding principles:

1. Employ plenty of concrete nouns and active verbs, especially when writing about abstract concepts.

2. Keep the nouns and verbs close together in your sentences, so that readers know “who’s kicking whom.” In other words, keep the actor and the action close together; express the crucial actions in verbs and the central characters (real or abstract) in subjects.

3. Avoid clutter: keep your sentences free from extraneous words and phrases.

How to put these principles regularly in play? Sword offers help here too.

1. Check the health of your sentences by pasting them to The “WritersDiet” test will categorize your sentences as “flabby” or “fit.”

2. Replace at least a few “be” verbs (be, been, is, are) with active verbs.

3. Identify your passive constructions and decide whether they add syntactical variety or offer other justification for inclusion. Too many passive phrases wilt the sentence.

4. Make sure at least one sentence per paragraph contains a concrete noun or human entity as its subject, immediately followed by an active verb.

5. A noun and its accompanying verb should pack a quick, one-two punch. Readers lose interest when more than a dozen or so words separate the actor (subject or noun) from the action (verb).

6. When writing about inanimate abstractions, still use active verbs to “animate” them.

7. Cut down on prepositional phrases, especially when they string together long sentence with abstract nouns.

8. When possible, explain abstract concepts using concrete examples (which, for brevity’s sake, I’ve violated in this very blog post!)

As many writers before Ms. Sword have pointed out: there is no writing, there is only re-writing. And, I would add, reading about re-writing. On that score, we should all read (and re-read) Ms. Sword’s engaging practical guide, “Stylish Academic Writing.”